Details

Optical WDM Networks


Optical WDM Networks

From Static to Elastic Networks
Wiley - IEEE 1. Aufl.

von: Devi Chadha

88,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-IEEE Press
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 08.05.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119393344
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 392

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Provides a comprehensive and updated account of WDM optical network systems Optical networking has advanced considerably since 2010. A host of new technologies and applications has brought a significant change in optical networks, migrating it towards an all-optical network. This book places great emphasis on the network concepts, technology, and methodologies that will stand the test of time and also help in understanding and developing advanced optical network systems. The first part of Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks provides a qualitative foundation for what follows—presenting an overview of optical networking, the different network architectures, basic concepts, and a high-level view of the different network structures considered in subsequent chapters. It offers a survey of enabling technologies and the hardware devices in the physical layer, followed by a more detailed picture of the network in the remaining chapters. The next sections give an in-depth study of the three basic network structures: the static broadcast networks, wavelength routed networks, and the electronic/optical logically routed networks, covering the characteristics of the optical networks in the access, metropolitan area, and long-haul reach. It discusses the networking picture; network control and management, impairment management and survivability. The last section of the book covers the upcoming technologies of flex-grid and software defined optical networking. Provides concise, updated, and comprehensive coverage of WDM optical networks Features numerous examples and exercise problems for the student to practice Covers, in detail, important topics, such as, access, local area, metropolitan, wide area all-optical and elastic networks Includes protocols, design, and analysis along with the control and management of the networks Offers exclusive chapters on advance topics to cover the present and future technological trends, such as, software defined optical networking and the flexible grid optical networks Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks is an excellent book for under and post graduate students in electrical/communication engineering. It will also be very useful to practicing professionals in communications, networking, and optical systems.
PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1. Introduction to Optical Networks 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Trends in Optical Networking 1.1.2 Classification of Optical Networks 1.2 Optical Networks: A Brief Picture 1.2.1 Multiplexing in Optical Networks 1.2.2 Services supported by Optical Networks 1.2.3 WDM Optical Network Architectures 1.2.3.1 Broadcast-and-Select Networks 1.2.3.2 Wavelength Routed Networks 1.2.3.3 Linear Lightwave Networks 1.2.4 Services Types 1.2.5 Types of Traffic 1.2.6 Switching Granularities 1.2.6.1 Optical Circuit Switching 1.2.6.2 Packet Switching for Bursty Traffic 1.3 Optical Network Layered Architecture 1.3.1 Layers and sub-layers 1.4 Organization of the Book 1.5 Summary References 2. Network Elements 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Optical Fiber 2.2.1 Loss and Bandwidth Windows 2.2.2 Linear and Nonlinear Effects 2.3 Laser Transmitter 2.3.1 Laser Characteristics 2.3.2 Tunable Lasers 2.3.3 Modulation Techniques 2.4 Optical Receiver 2.5 Optical Amplifiers 2.5.1 Types of optical Amplifiers 2.5.1.1 Semiconductor Optical Amplifier 2.5.1.2 Fiber Amplifiers 2.6 Optical Network Components 2.6.1 Passive Coupler Devices 2.6.1.1 Coupler Parameters 2.6.1.2 Scattering Matrix formulation of 2x2 coupler 2.6.2 Switching Elements 2.6.2.1 Directive Switches 2.6.2.2Gate Switches 2.6.2.3 Micro-Electro Mechanical Switch 2.6.2.4 Liquid Crystal Optical Switch 2.6.3 NxN Star Coupler 2.6.4 Grating 2.6.4.1 Fiber Bragg Gratings 2.6.4.2 Arrayed Waveguide Grating 2.6.5 Optical Filters 2.6.5.1 Fabry-Perot Filter 2.6.5.2 Multi-layered Dielectric Thin-Film Filter 2.6.5.3 Acousto-optic Filter 2.7 Optical Multiplexer and De-multiplexer 2.7.1 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Multiplexer 2.8 Routers 2.8.1 Static Wavelength Router 2.8.2 Reconfigurable Wavelength Router 2.8.3 Optical Packet Routing Switch 2.9 Optical Switching Fabrics 2.9.1 Classification of switching Fabrics 2.9.2 Classification according to Blocking Characteristics 2.9.3 Types of Space Switching Fabrics 2.9.3.1 Cross-bar Switching Fabric 2.9.3.2 Clos Switch Fabric 2.9.3.3 Spanke Switch Fabric 2.9.3.4 Benes Switch Fabric 2.9.3.5 Spanke-Benes Switch Fabric 2.10 Wavelength Converter 2.10.1 Opto-electronic Wavelength Converter 2.10.2 All-Optical Wavelength converter 2.10.2.1 Transparent All Optical Wavelength converters 2.10.2.2 Opaque Wavelength Converter 2.11 Optical Network Functional Blocks 2.11.1 Network Access Terminal 2.11.2 Optical Network Node 2.11.2.1 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer 2.11.2.2 Optical Cross-Connect 2.12 Conclusion References 3. Broadcast and Select Local Area Networks 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Physical Topologies of Single-Hop Network 3.2.1. Star Topology 3.2.2. Folded Bus Topolgy 3.2.3. Tree Topology 3.3 Multiplexing and Multiple Access in Broadcast and Select Network 3.4 Network Traffic 3.4.1 Circuit Switched Traffic 3.4.1.1 Streamed Synchronous Traffic on Dedicated Connections 3.4.1.2 Packet Traffic with Fixed Frame on dedicated Connection 3.4.1.3Traffic with Demand-Assigned Switched Connection 3.4.2 Packet Switched Traffic 3.5 Network Resource Sharing in Optical Network 3.5.1 Capacity Increase with number of wavelength channels 3.5.2 Capacity Increase with number of Time-Slots 3.6 Capacity of Broadcast and Select Network 3.6.1 Scheduling Efficiency 3.7 Packet Switching in Optical Layer in Broadcast and Select Network 3.8 Medium Access Protocols 3.8.1 Non-Pre-Transmission Co-Ordination MAC Protocols 3.8.2 Pre-Transmission Co-Ordination MAC Protocols 3.8.2.1 Slotted Aloha/Slotted Aloha Protocol 3.8.2.2 DT-WDMA Scheduling Protocol 3.8.2.3 MAC Scheduling Protocols 3.9 Summary References 4. Optical Access Networks 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Available Access Technologies 4.2.1 Access Network Classification 4.2.1.1 Digital Subscriber Line 4.2.1.2 Cable Television 4.2.1.3 Hybrid fiber Coaxial Network 4.2.1.4 Fixed Wireless Access Network 4.2.1.5 Satellite Wireless Access Network 4.3 Optical Fiber Access Network 4.3.1 Passive Optical Network Topology 4.4 PON Architectures in Access Networks 4.4.1 Broadcast and Select Passive Optical Networks 4.5 TDM/TDMA EPON Operation 4.5.1 Upstream communication in PON 4.5.2 Multi-Point Control Protocol 4.5.2.1 Auto-Discovery and Registration 4.5.2.2 Ranging and Clock Synchronization 4.5.2.3 Signalling Messages used for Arbitration 4.5.3 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithms 4.5.3.1 Service Disciplines 4.5.3.2 Interleaved Polling with Adaptive Cycle Time DBA Protocol 4.6 WDM PON Network Architecture 4.6.1 WDM PON with TPON Architecture 4.6.2 Wavelength Routing WDM PON 4.7 Next Generation PONs 4.7.1 NG-PON1 4.7.2 Long-Term Evolution NG-PON2 4.8 Free Space Optical Access Networks 4.8.1 Optical Wireless Access System 4.8.2 Hybrid Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network 4.9 Summary References 5. Optical Metropolitan Area Networks 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy 5.2.1 SONET Networks 5.2.2 SONET Multiplexing 5.2.2.1 Virtual Tributaries 5.2.3 SONET Frame 5.2.4 SONET/SDH Devices 5.2.4.1 Terminal Multiplexer 5.2.4.2 Regenerator 5.2.4.3 Add/Drop Multiplexer 5.2.4.4 Digital Cross-Connect 5.2.5 SONET Protocol Hierarchy 5.2.6 SONET Network Configuration 5.2.7 Traffic Grooming 5.2.8 Scalability of SONET/SDH Networks 5.3 Optical Transport Network 5.3.1 Layered Hierarchy of OTN 5.3.2 Line Rates of OTN 5.3.3 OTN Frame Structure 5.3.3.1 OTN Frame Structure Overheads 5.3.4 OTN Switching 5.3.4.1 OTN Switch 5.3.5 Tandem Connection Monitoring 5.4 Summary Reference 6. Wavelength Routed Wide Area Networks 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Hybrid Wavelength Routed Networks 6.3 The Optical Layer in Wavelength Routed Network 6.4 Design of Wavelength Routed Network with Logical Routing Network Overlay 6.5 Analysis of WDM Wavelength Routing Networks 6.5.1. Optimization Problem Formulation of the WRN 6.6 Heuristic Solution for WDM Wavelength Routed Networks 6.6.1 Design Parameters, Performance Metric and QoS Issues 6.6.2 Route Selection Algorithms 6.6.2.1 Breadth-First-Search Algorithm 6.6.2.2Dijkstra Algorithm 6.6.3 Heuristic Wavelength Routing Algorithms 6.6.3.1 Fixed Routing 6.6.3.2 Fixed-Alternate Routing 6.6.3.3 Adaptive Routing 6.6.3.4 Least Congested Path Routing 6.6.4 Wavelength Assignment Algorithms 6.6.4.1 Fixed Order First-Fit 6.6.4.2 Random Assignment 6.6.4.3 Least Used Wavelength Assignment 6.6.4.4 Most Used Wavelength Assignment 6.6.5 Joint Routing-Wavelength Assignment Algorithm 6.7 Logical Topology Design Heuristics 6.7.1 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Congestion Minimization 6.7.2 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Delay Minimization 6.7.3 Logical Topology Design Algorithm with Link Elimination and Matching 6.7.4 Simulated Annealing-Based LT Heuristics 6.8 Summary References 7 Network Control and Management 7.1 Introduction 7.2 NMS Architecture of Optical Transport Network 7.3 Logical Architecture of Automatic Switched Optical Network 7.3.1 Interaction between the Client Control Layer and Optical Control Layer 7.4 Functions of Management and Control Plane 7.4.1 Discovery or State Information 7.4.2 Routing 7.4.3 Signaling 7.4.3.1 Signaling Network 7.4.3.2 Alarm Management System 7.4.3.3 Resource Reservation Signaling Protocol 7.4.4 Performance Monitoring 7.4.5 Fault Management 7.4.6 Security, Management and Policing 7.5 Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching 7.5.1 Interfaces in GMPLS 7.5.2 GMPLS Control Plane Functions and Services 7.5.3 GMPLS Protocol Suite 7.5.4 Path Computation Element 7.6 Summary References 8 Impairment Management and Survivability 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Impairments in Optical Networks 8.2.1 Impairments in Transport Optical Networks 8.2.2 Evaluation Criteria for Signal Quality 8.2.3 Optical System Impairments 8.2.3.1 Linear Impairments 8.2.3.2 Impairments due to nonlinearities 8.2.4 Impairment Awareness and Compensation in Optical Networks 8.3 Survivability in Optical Networks 8.4 Protection and Restoration 8.4.1 Protection Schemes 8.4.2 Restoration Schemes 8.5 Survivability in Multilayer WDM Optical Networks 8.5.1 Survivability in Electrical Logical Layer 8.5.2 Optical Layer Protection/Restoration 8.6 Conclusion References 9 Flexible Optical Networks 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Coherent Modulation Schemes 9.2.1 Dual Polarization-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying 9.2.2 M-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 9.3 Multi-Carrier Modulation Schemes 9.3.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 9.3.1.1 Cyclic Prefix in OFDM 9.3.1.2 Peak-to-Average Power Ratio for OFDM 9.3.2 Optical OFDM 9.3.2.1 Direct-Detection Optical OFDM 9.3.2.2 Coherent Detection Optical OFDM 9.3.2.3 All Optical OFDM 9.4 Elastic Optical Network 9.5 Elastic Optical Network Elements 9.5.1 Flexible-Grid Fiber 9.5.2 Bandwidth Variable Transponder 9.5.3 Flexible Spectrum Selective Switches 9.5.4 Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplexer 9.6 Routing and Spectrum Assignment Algorithms 9.6.1 Static and Dynamic RSA 9.6.1.1 Static ILP and Heuristic RSA Solutions 9.6.1.2 RSA for Time-Varying Traffic 9.6.1.3 Network Defragmentation RSA 9.7Network Control and Management 9.8 Summary References 10 Software Defined Optical Networks 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Software Defined Networking 10.2.1 Functions of SDN Layers 10.2.1.1 Infrastructure Layer 10.2.1.2. South Bound Interface 10.2.1.3 Network Hypervisors 10.2.1.4 Network Operating System 10.2.1.5 Northbound Interfaces Layer 10.2.1.6 Network Application Layer 10.3 Software Defined Optical Networking 10.3.1 SDON Architecture 10.3.1.1 SDON Data Plane 10.3.1.2 SDON Control Plane 10.3.1.3 SDON Application Plane 10.4 Summary References Index
DEVI CHADHA, PHD, is Professor Emeritus at IIT, Delhi in India. She has over 40 years of teaching and research experience in the areas of electromagnetics, microwaves, optical fiber communication, optical wireless communications, and photonics and switching networks. In addition, Professor Chadha is a Senior Member of IEEE, a Member of OSA, and a Fellow of IE (India).
Provides a comprehensive and updated account of WDM optical network systems Optical networking has advanced considerably since 2010. A host of new technologies and applications has brought a significant change in optical networks, migrating it towards an all-optical network. This book places great emphasis on the network concepts, technology, and methodologies that will stand the test of time and also help in understanding and developing advanced optical network systems. The first part of Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks provides a qualitative foundation for what follows—presenting an overview of optical networking, the different network architectures, basic concepts, and a high-level view of the different network structures considered in subsequent chapters. It offers a survey of enabling technologies and the hardware devices in the physical layer, followed by a more detailed picture of the network in the remaining chapters. The next sections give an in-depth study of the three basic network structures: the static broadcast networks, wavelength routed networks, and the electronic/optical logically routed networks, covering the characteristics of the optical networks in the access, metropolitan area, and long-haul reach. It discusses the networking picture; network control and management, impairment management and survivability. The last section of the book covers the upcoming technologies of flex-grid and software defined optical networking. Provides concise, updated, and comprehensive coverage of WDM optical networks Features numerous examples and exercise problems for the student to practice Covers, in detail, important topics, such as access, local area, metropolitan, wide area all-optical and elastic networks Includes protocols, design, and analysis along with the control and management of the networks Offers exclusive chapters on advance topics to cover the present and future technological trends, such as software defined optical networking and the flexible grid optical networks Optical WDM Networks: From Static to Elastic Networks is an excellent book for under and post graduate students in electrical/communication engineering. It will also be very useful to practicing professionals in communications, networking, and optical systems.

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